I don't know about how Google Maps handles standby (mostly since I haven't checked it out), but today I tried tracking with GPSLogger and with BlackStar (a nice little tracker but not nearly as feature-rich as GPSLogger), each time with the phone on standby.
BlackStar: 10-mile drive, recording set to one point every 20 meters (equivalent to 1 point every 2.5 seconds or so) ... every point was recorded, leaving me a nice, continuous track.
GPSLogger: 3-mile drive, recording set to one point every 5 seconds ... three points were recorded: two were recorded within maybe 200 meters of starting the drive (right before I put the phone on standby), and then one more point at roughly the 2 mile mark (while the phone was still on standby), and nothing else.
Btw, I'm not trying to knock GPSLogger (I like it a lot and find it very useful); I'm just wondering what's going on. I use standby so that buttons do not accidentally get pushed while the phone is in my pocket or rattling around in my bike bag...